DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.

Works Cited

1) Bavelier, Daphne. “Your Brain On Video Games.” June 2012, Luasanne, Switzerland, Lausanne University Hospital.
In her TED Talk, Bavelier, a professor and researcher of cognitive neuroscience at University of Geneva, discusses the unknown and unapparent benefits of minimal yet regular video game play. This serves as a source for a counter-argument, in an attempt at seeing both sides of the argument about violent video games.

2) Bissière, Stephanie et al. “The Rostral Anterior Cingulate Cortex Modulates the Efficiency of Amygdala-Dependent Fear Learning.” Biological Psychiatry, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Jan. 2008, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc2880388/.
This article was very technical and discussed the functions of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex and its association with the amygdala. I used this article solely for basic information on the rACC and its connection with the amygdala.


3) Bush*†‡, George et al. “George Bush.” Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex: A Role in Reward-Based Decision Making, http://www.pnas.org/content/99/1/523.full.
Similar to the above source, this article discussed in depth the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. I used this article in order to understand the functions of the dACC.


4) “Catharsis Definition in the Cambridge English Dictionary.” http://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/catharsis.
This website provided me the definition of catharsis.
5) "Catharsis Theory and Media Effects." Encyclopedia of Communication and Information. .Encyclopedia.com. 20 Oct. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.
This webpage gave me some background on the history and usage of the word “catharsis” and I used it to introduce the word in my paper, in order to establish my primary source (Halo) as a form of catharsis.


6) Dotinga, Randy. “Violent Video Games Don't Influence Kids' Behavior: Study.”Consumer HealthDay, ScoutNews LLC, 3 Apr. 2015, https://consumer.healthday.com/mental-health-information-25/behavior-health-news-56/violent-video-games-don-t-influence-kids-behavior-study-698040.html.
This article discussed the idea that researchers who focus on the effects of violence in video games on people exaggerate those effects. The author states that while there are effects on players’ behaviors, they are not as major as some researchers say. I used this article, along with Bavelier’s talk, to discuss the other side of the conversation I reference.


7) “ESRB Ratings Guide.” Rating Categories, Content Descriptors, and Interactive Elements from ESRB, http://www.esrb.org/ratings/ratings_guide.aspx.
The Entertainment Software Rating Board is the group that established the guidelines and rules for video game ratings. They decide what rating games should receive based on the content, and what age group should be allowed to play these games. I used these rating guides to state that violence in video games may be perceived differently from person to person.
8) Whitney D. Gunter, Kevin Daly, (2012), “Causal or spurious: Using propensity score matching to detangle the relationship between violent video games and violent behavior”, Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 28 pp 1348-1355
This article uses propensity score matching in order to determine if there is a causal link between violence in video games and outward aggression. These researchers tested 6567 eighth graders. They found that evidence used in studies (using different methodology) has been overestimated in that the results are different depending on the testing and analysis processes.

9) Tilo Hartmann, Peter Vorderer, (2010), “It’s Okay to Shoot a Character: Moral Disengagement in Violent Video Games”, Journal of Communication, Vol. 24 pp 94-119
“What makes virtual violence enjoyable rather than aversive?” This article discusses the desensitization to violence experienced by players of violent video games. In two experiments, the researchers found that the level of guilt and other negative effects decreased when they 1: knew the narrative of the game and acknowledged that the nonhuman characters were just characters; and 2: when they gamers thought of the game as “just a game,” their level of guilt also decreased.

10) “Achievements - Halo: The Master Chief Collection Wiki ...” IGN, 11 Nov. 2014, http://www.ign.com/wikis/halo-master-chief-collection/achievements.
This article, on a well-established video gaming website, has a list of every reward and achievement in the game Halo, which I used to show the ways Halo justifies and encourages the player to act in the game.
11) “Grunt Birthday Party Skull - Halo: Combat Evolved ...” IGN, 15 Nov. 2011, http://www.ign.com/wikis/halo-combat-evolved-anniversary/grunt_birthday_party_skull.
This article specifically discusses the achievement mentioned in the paragraph discussing Halo’s means of justifying violent actions in the game.

12) Lishner, David A., Christopher L. Groves, and Quin M. Chrobak. “Are Violent Video Game-Aggression Researchers Biased?” Aggression and Violent Behavior 25, Part A (2015): 75–78.
This article discusses the possibility of bias amongst authors of studies such as the first article on this bibliography. They pose the idea that authors who believe a link between aggression and violent video games exists are biased due to the fact that they use meta-analytical tactics in order to further their arguments that there is a link between aggression and violent video games.

13) Rinck P. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. The Basic Textbook of the European Magnetic Resonance Forum. 9th edition; 2016. Electronic version 8, published 30 September 2016
This article discusses the uses and technology behind magnetic resonance imaging, and the difference between standard MRIs and fMRIs. I used this information in order to state the difference between MRIs and fMRIs and also some of the basic technology and logic behind the fMRIs.
14) Rene Weber , Ute Ritterfeld & Klaus Mathiak (2006) Does Playing Violent Video Games Induce Aggression? Empirical Evidence of a Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study”, Media Psychology, 8:1, 39-60
This article seems to be the one of the only articles I was able to find that had real, empirical evidence to support their claims. These researchers measured brain functions of adolescents playing a video game with a functional fMRI. They carefully watched the parts of the brain associated with decision making, emotions, memories and other functions having to do with the judgement and emotion of people. They found that it is difficult to base argument off of meta-analysis as opposed to when you conduct research that yields “real” data.

15) Ellen Wolock, (2004),"Violence in video games", Young Consumers, Vol. 5 Iss 3 pp. 53 – 58
This article discusses the author’s search for answers and her study on the long controversial topic of if violent video games has a direct impact on a person’s behavior. The author conducted several surveys: one found that teenagers reported behaving outwardly aggressive to friends and family after playing a violent video game. Another survey found that second grade “displayed more aggressive behavior immediately after playing a violent video game than boys who played a non-aggressive game. 

DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.